I developed this theme during my master in Social Psychology where I did my very first survey in 1987 on stereotypes between ethnic groups and stigmatisation of ethnic groups. A survey with 300 respondents was arranged, and we tudied to what extent consistency could be observed between inter-ethnic friendship and stereotypes. The relationship turned out as not straight forward and complicated.  Seeing the danger of such unfounded views about migrant groups, I remained interested in the subject. I wrote about Stigma in the case of Moroccan associations, and stigma towards Muslims during the EURISLAM project. At that point in time, Islamophobia had become an obvious phenomenon.



  • Kassaye, A., & A. van Heelsum (2020) ‘Muslim Organisations’ Response to Stigmatisation in the Media: Protest, Adaption or Decoupling’, Journal of Muslims in Europe, 9(1), 96-118, DOI: 10.1163/22117954-BJA10001.
  • Kassaye, A., I. Ashur & A. van Heelsum (2016) ‘The relationship between media discourses and experiences of belonging: Dutch Somali perspectives’. Ethnicities 16 (5). DOI: 10.1177/1468796816653627.
  • Heelsum, A. van (2014) ‘Moroccan associations in the Netherlands: how organisation leaders deal with the stigmatisation of the Moroccan community’, in: I. Handzlik & L. Sorokowski (eds.) Found in Multiculturalism. Acceptance or Challenge? Bern/New York: Peter Lang Publishers, p.91-106.
  • Koomen, M. & A. van Heelsum (2013). ‘The impact of public debates on Muslim representative in Western Europe: the agenda setting function of mass media’, in: M. Kortmann & K. Rosenow-Williams (eds.), Islamic organisations in Europe and the USA, a multidisciplinary Perspective, Besingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 79-94.
  • Koomen, M., J. Tillie, A. van Heelsum & S. van Stiphout (2013) ‘Discursive framing and the reproduction of integration in the public sphere: a comparative analysis of France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany’, Ethnicities, 13 (2), 191-208, DOI: 10.1177/1468796812470898.
  • Heelsum, A. van (2003) Reacties van zelforganisaties op stigmatisering, In: S. Harchaoui & C. Huinder (eds), Stigma: Marokkaan! Over het afstoten en uitsluiten van een ingebeelde bevolkingsgroep, Utrecht: Forum.
  • Heelsum, A. van & I. Alkema (1987) Vooroordeel en Vriendschap. MA thesis Sociale Psychologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.